SportPsych Consulting is proud to have been an Official Supporter and Exclusive Sport Psychology Training Provider for the national athletes, their parents, coaches, and team managers at the highly successful 28th SEA Games 2015! 

About Us

SportPsych Consulting is Southeast Asia's very first and largest sport & performance psychology consultancy established since 2006

Contact Us

Have any queries or comments? Send us an inquiry here or you could also email us at info@sportpsychconsulting.com!

Our Team

Edgar K Tham
MSc(SpPsych,USA), Registered Psychologist (S'pore),
Cert.NLP Master Practitioner (USA)

Founder of SportPsych Consulting (2006)
Chief Sport & Performance Psychologist
Associate Faculty (Psychology & Sports/PE),
 Singapore University of Social Sciences
Mental Toughness Coach & Master Trainer, MTRI

Edgar is Singapore's pioneer Sport & Performance Psychologist; He was employed by the Singapore Government as its very first local sport psychologist in 1995. He has worked with more than 40 different performance domains (e.g., sports, music, performing arts, military, civil defense, business, sales, online forex/futures trading, motor racing, professional poker, etc) from the schools to world championship levels since 1993.

 

Edgar was the founding Head of the Sport Psychology Unit of the Singapore Sports Council in 1996. He was team consultant and traveling psychologist to numerous national teams preparing for the SEA Games, Asian Youth Games, Asian Games, Commonwealth Games, Youth Olympic Games, Olympic Games, Paralympic Games, World Championships, and ASEAN Armies Rifle Meets (till 2001). Currently, Edgar is a full-time sport & performance psychologist in private practice. He has consulted for and implemented season-long sport psychology programmes for numerous sports teams.

 

As a Registered Psychologist (since 2002) with the Singapore Psychological Society, Edgar is listed in the International Who's Who of Professionals (2000) for his specialized work in peak performance psychology. He is the author / co-author of the following publications:

  • Mental Toughness Strategies of the World’s Greatest Athletes, with Dr Daniel A. Weigand, Health Sciences Academy, USA, August 2010

  • Scientifically Slim: 30 Proven Ways to Lose Weight & Keep It Off, with Dr Machiel Kennedy & Shirlaine Phang, Langdon Street Press, USA, July 2009

  • World Sport Psychology Sourcebook, 3rd Edition (Chapter Contributor; Sport Psychology in Singapore), with Dr Teh Kong Chuan, Fitness Information Technology, USA, Dec 2001

  • Psychological Rehabilitation [audio CD], Singapore Sports Council, Dec 2000

  • In the Zone: The Mindset for Peak Performance [audio book], Singapore Sports Council, July 1997

 

In his free time, Edgar teaches part-time as an adjunct teaching faculty member of several undergraduate psychology and sport science diploma / degree courses. He is also a long-time lecturer for the Singapore Sports Council’s National Coaching Accreditation Programme in Sport Psychology (Mental Skills Training) since 1996.

 

Edgar holds black belts in both Aikido and Taekwondo, and was a national champion in canoeing (National Schools A Division) and dragon boat racing (National Men's Open). He was awarded numerous Colours Awards for his leadership roles and multi-sport achievements. In 2010, Edgar was awarded the highly prestigious Diplomate in Sport Psychology by the International Sports Professionals Association (USA) for his pioneering work and contributions in sport psychology in Asia

Pamela Picardal

BSpSci (UPD), MA Sport Psych (USA)

Certified Mental Toughness Coach (USA)

Senior Sport & Performance Psychologist

Co-Founder, SportPsych Consulting Philippines
www.fb.com/sportpsychphilippines

Pam graduated with Bachelor of Sport Science from University of the Philippines, and an MA in Sport Psychology from John F. Kennedy University (San Francisco, CA). ​

Pam played for the University of the Philippines Women’s Football Team from 2003 until 2007. She was also recruited for the Sikat Football Club, a women’s semi-professional football club in the Philippines in 2015. Her love for football didn’t stop her from playing and sharing her skills to aspiring athletes. She was a volunteer coach for her alumni school, Miriam College grade school and high school football teams and in Boystown orphanage. Recently, Pam was able to lead her own mixed football team, 360 Football Club, which competes yearly in the Corporate Football League and other known tournaments in Metro Manila.        

 

Through football, Pam became passionate in helping aspiring athletes to achieve their dreams. She believed that with sport psychology, she could teach mental skills that can benefit an athlete’s performance and studies as well.  

 

Pam has worked and/or are currently working with the following:

 

  • 360 Fitness Club

  • 360PRO Strength and Conditioning Facility

  • Boystown Football Team

  • Miriam College Football Team

  • Nanyang Polytechnic’s World Skills Competition Teams

  • PLDT Football Team

  • Swiss Cottage Secondary School CCA Teams

  • UltimateFitness MMA

Michelle Kong

BPsych(Aust.), NCAP Level 2 Sport Coach,
Certified NLP Master Practitioner (USA),
Certified Mental Toughness Master Coach (USA)

Member, Golden Key International Honour Society

Sport & Performance Psychology Consultant

Co-founder & Chief Coach, Sportify SG Pte Ltd

Michelle has guided many athletes to realize their true potential in sports and life. She has facilitated leadership, learning and life skills development workshops like the well-known SmartKids™ holiday camp. Some of the sports teams she has 

worked and/or are currently working with include:

  • Catholic High School Tennis Team

  • Cedar Girls’ Secondary School

  • Ignite Tennis Academy Junior Tennis Teams

  • Methodist Girls’ School Bowling Team

  • Raffles Girls’ School Judo Team

  • Raffles Institution CCA Teams

  • Seng Kang Secondary School Hockey Team

  • Serangoon Gardens Secondary School CCA Teams

  • Xi Shan Primary School Floorball Team

 

At present, Michelle is also Chief Coach and Trainer for Asia’s first early years sport psychology training programme. She designs and implements long-term development programmes and scientific assessment tools for young learners, laying the foundation for developing future champions in sport and life.

 

Having coached in multiple preschools across Singapore, Michelle has worked with children aged eighteen months and up. She has successfully delivered coaching services that encompass gross motor, locomotor, stability, manipulative and sport-specific skills development. Michelle has also customized age-, skill- and competency-based lesson curriculums for early years physical education.

 

Michelle graduated with a Bachelor of Psychology from James Cook University (Australia) with distinctions in counselling, learning and personality.  Recognized for achieving top 15% in university academic studies, she was extended invitation to the Golden Key International Honour Society.  An active student, Michelle was heavily involved in sports and dance.  She was also a mainstay in her school’s tennis team.

Alida Toh Jia Wen

DSES(S'pore), BSpSci(Aust.),
NCAP Level 2 Sport Coach,
Certified NLP Master Practitioner (USA)

Certified Mental Toughness Master Coach (USA)

Sport Science & Psychology Consultant

Jia Wen was one of the top graduates of the pioneer batch of Diploma in Sports & Exercise Sciences of Republic Polytechnic. She is also a graduate of the Bachelor of Science (Exercise & Sports Science) with Edith Cowan University, Australia.

 

Her huge passion in sports science has motivated Jia Wen to pursue various careers in the sports industry in Singapore over the years. Her working experience has given her opportunities to work with the various sporting stakeholders (i.e. National athletes, Sport Singapore, tertiary students).

 

With more than 10 years of involvement in the sports science field, Jia Wen went on to lead a team that designed a sports science curriculum programme and materials for Singapore Sports School year 1 to year 5 cohorts in 2016. Her growing passion in sport psychology has led her and SportPsych Consulting (SPC) team to develop SPC very own unique training methodology: PLAY training methodology™, that is used in our training programmes. PLAY™ is an acronym that stands for Play, Learn and ApplY.

 

Jia Wen has conducted several mental skills sessions and coached athletes from various sports and teams, including:


National

  • 28th SEA Games 2015 Athletes, their Parents, Coaches and Team Managers

  • 8th ASEAN 2015 Para Games 2015 Athletes

  • SAF Army Shooting Contingent (Rifle Team)
     

Tertiary

  • Nanyang Polytechnic’s World Skills Competition Teams

  • NUS King Edward VII Hall Sports Teams

  • Singapore Polytechnic Touch Rugby Team

  • Ngee Ann Polytechnic Bowling Team

Secondary

  • Swiss Cottage Secondary School CCA Teams

  • Raffles Institution Basketball Team

  • Nanyang Girls’ High Secondary 4 Cohort

  • Nan Hua High Cross Country Team

  • Yishun Town Secondary School Basketball Team

  • Bedok Green Secondary School Sports Camp

  • Teck Whye Secondary School CCA Teams

Primary

  • Holy Innocent’s Primary School Sports & Performing Arts CCA Teams

  • CHIJ Our Lady Queen of Peace Sports Camp

A/Prof. Daniel A. Weigand 

MSc(Psych), MSc(Kinesiology), PhD

Fellow, Assoc. for Applied Sport Psychology (AASP)

Visiting Sport & Performance Psychologist

Adjunct Professor (Sport & Performance Psychology),
  University of Western States, USA

Director, Mental Toughness Research Institute (MTRI), USA

Dr. Weigand's work experience has been varied. He spent 11 years living in England. During this time he was a reader in sport and exercise science, the chair of the sport and exercise department and the director of the Sport and Exercise Research Center at the University of Northampton. He also taught sport and exercise psychology, as well as directed all sport-related research and consultancy for the university.

 

While living in England, he was the only American to be chair of the Psychology Section of the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences (BASES). In addition, he was the liaison between BASES and the Association for Applied Sport Psychology (AASP), and one of two BASES representatives on the General Assembly of the European Federation of Sport Psychology (FEPSAC).

 

Dr. Weigand has held a number of accreditations: an AASP Certified Consultant, a BASES Accredited Sport and Exercise Scientist: Psychology (Research and Support), and a British Psychological Society Chartered Psychologist. He is a fellow of AASP (inactive) and was a fellow of the European College of Sport Science. He was also a member of the U.S. Olympic Committee Sport Psychology Registry and a member of the British Olympic Association Psychology Advisory Group.

 

He has conducted numerous presentations, workshops, interviews, and individual / team consultations on mental skills training in sport and exercise. He has worked with novice and elite athletes in the U.S. and U.K., including national champions, Olympians and professionals from the following sports: athletics (track and field), badminton, baseball, basketball, boxing, football (American), field hockey, golf, ice (figure) skating, lawn bowling, motor racing, platform / springboard diving, rowing, rugby union, soccer, softball, swimming, tennis, triathlon and water polo. He recently worked as a full-time mental performance specialist at the U.S. Army JFK Special Warfare Center and School at Ft. Bragg. He also has his own consulting business, Achieve Acumen. Dr. Weigand is also a consultant with Sport Psych Consulting.

 

He recently finished as the longest-serving editor-in-chief of the Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. He is the founding editor of the newly-established Mental Toughness Research Journal. Previously, he was the editor-in-chief for the Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences; a behavioral/social science section editor for the European Journal of Sport Science; an editorial board member of the Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness; and an associate editor for Athletic Insight and the Journal of Sport Behavior. He has also reviewed articles for the European Journal of Psychology in Education, the European Physical Education Review, the European Journal of Physical Education, theJournal of Adolescence, the Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, The Sport Psychologist, the International Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, the Journal of Sports Sciences, the Journal of Sport Management, the Psychology of Sport and Exercise, and the Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. He had reviewed more than 1,600 manuscripts.

 

He is the Director of the Mental Toughness Research Institute and has had many articles published in scientific journals and has presented papers internationally. His research is primarily in the following areas: motivational climate and the development of achievement motivation in physical education, sport and exercise; mental skills training effectiveness in physical education, sport and exercise; and the psychology of injury rehabilitation in sport and exercise.

Antony Lou T C

Dip. Counselling and Communications (Sport & Performance Psychology, Aust),

BAppSocSci (Sport & Performance Psychology, Aust.)

Cert Mental Toughnes Coach (USA)

NLP Master Practitioner (USA)

Cert Golf Psych Coaching (NTA, PGAs of EU)

Sport & Performance Psychology Consultant

Dedicated and passionate about sports, Antony has helped many aspiring athletes and performers in realizing their dreams. At the national level, he has worked with the Badminton Developmental Squad, Hockey Team, Softball Teams and Women Canoe Polo Teams in preparation for the SEA Games, regional tournaments and World Championships. He has also worked with the SAF Shooting Contingents (2014 and 2015) to prepare for one of the disciplines in the Asean Armies Rifle Meet.
 

Since 2004, he has worked with many sports and performing arts teams at the School and Junior College levels like Soccer, Netball, Softball, Wushu, Hockey, Basketball, Judo, Chinese Orchestra and Choir with several teams claiming some honours in the process. Currently, he is still active in the Singapore Schools Sport’s scene working with school athletes. He was also involved with the Soccer Academy in Singapore Sports School as a Mental Skills Trainer for the Under- 13, 14 and 15 age-groups in 2008.

 

In October 2008, Antony trained the Singapore Team which deputed in the 7th Asean Skills Competition held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, priming them mentally. In this competition, all representatives were from the ITE Colleges. They performed beyond expectation by clinching 4 Gold and 5 Diploma of Excellence (awarded to competitors who manage a score of 500 out of a possible 600 points).

 

At the national level, Antony was the traveling Sport Psychology Consultant to National Women Softball Team for 2 major games in 2011 (10th Asian Women Championship, Taiwan and 26th SEA Games, Palembang, Indonesia). He was also involved in the Asian Youth Hockey Championship, 2011 which the team won the Youth Team of the Year Award for achieving 4th overall in this tournament. 28th SEA Games held in Singapore was the highlight where SportPsych Consulting was the official supporter. In this biennial game, Antony worked with the Men’s Softball Team and Women’s Hockey Team.  

 

Antony was also the traveling Sport Psychology Consultant in the Women’s Canoe Polo Team for the World Championship 2012, Poznan, Poland and 2014 World Championship in Thury-Harcout, Normandy, France. In 2013, he worked with the team as well for the Asian Women Canoe Polo Championship which they came in 2nd in India.

 

Antony also ventured into working with professional golfer accompanying him in various tournaments in Asian Tour and Asian Development Tour in his quest for glory. Currently, he is still working and supporting him on the Mental Game of Golf.

 

Antony has played competitive soccer at the national level and holding the Football Preliminary Coaching Certification, conducted by Football Association of Singapore. He was a former Canoeing Instructor with People Association (Regional Youth Central) and has a certification in Life Savings, Bronze Medallion.

 

Antony is also an active Grassroots Leader for more than 20 years. He is currently serving the Siglap Constituency Sports Club as its Vice Chairman. He was the first batch of graduates of the Joint Certificate conferred by the Republic Polytechnic and NACLI in both Certificate in Community Leadership and Advanced Certificate in Community Leadership.

Hans Sivano

Certified Mental Toughness Coach (MTRI,USA)

Certified Neuro Linguistic Practitioner (IANLP,Swiss) 

Certified Master DISC Analyst (IML,USA)

Co-founder, Sport Psych Consulting Indonesia

Founder, People Mastery Indonesia

www.fb.com/sportpsychindonesia

Hans Sivano is a People Reading and Development Specialist who helps individuals and organizations to transform themselves through identifying their team members’ uniqueness and develop them accordingly. He collaborates with internationally  recognized test vendors to provide the most reliable, quick, yet affordable people-reading services in conjunction with the subsequent people-development services. 

 

He led the branch office of DISCovery Consultancy, a behavior based consultant which acts as Certified Training Center and Sole agent of The Institute Motivational Living, USA in Surabaya, Indonesia, for 3 years before he founded People Mastery Indonesia in 2016, and later partnered up with Chief Sport & Performance Psychologist Edgar K. Tham to launch SportPsych Consulting Indonesia in Surabaya.

Within the last 5 years, he has conducted various people development trainings and camps in more than 50 classes with more than 5000 audiences around Indonesia, including Malang, Surabaya, Yogyakarta, Solo, and Bali. In the 
late 2015, he was invited in Asia Pacific Regional Rotaract Conference in Yogyakarta as a keynote speaker to talk about People Development.

 

His profession and passion for helping others unleashing their potentials has lead him to collaborate with SportPsych Consulting (HQ) to spread the “B3+5C” mental skills strategies used by the elite athletes to impact more people in Indonesia. 

As a Partner in SportPsych Consulting Indonesia, Hans has worked / are currently working with the following clients:

  • Sales School Indonesia

  • Entrepreneur Academy

  • Greensol Indonesia

  • Saga Contractor

  • Widaya Inti Plasma

  • Matahari Labs

  • Omegasoft

  • Karya Sejati Makmur

  • Intidragon

  • EF English Center for Adults
     

Chris Lee W K

Cert Mental Toughness Coach (USA)

Cert Golf Psych Coaching (NTA, PGAs of EU)

Sport & Performance Psychology Consultant

Member, Int'l Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP)

Member, British Assoc. of Sport & Exercise Sci.(BASES)

Member, Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology (AAASP)

KamilFahmi Selamat

DSES(S'pore), DSpMtg(S'pore)
NCAP Level 2 Sport Coach, ACTA (S'pore)

Certified Mental Toughness Coach (USA)

Senior Partner & Performance Enhancement Consultant

KamilFahmi Selamat is a Certified Mental Toughness Coach (USA) and a Performance Enhancement Consultant with SportPsych Consulting. He has Full ACTA Certification (WDA) and NCAP Level 2 Sport Coach. In addition to his educational background, he has a Diploma in Sport and Exercise Science (PSB Academy) and Sport Management (NYP) and a strong believer of lifelong learning.

 

His experiences include being a Physical Training Instructor in the SAF in the early years of his Military career. After his military career, he was still involved in training SAF soldiers at the SAF Multi-Mission Range Complex as a shooting coach; having conducted over 800 live-ranges, he has trained and coached various level of SAF shooters from beginner to competitive level.

 

His passion for shooting and sports led him to be passionately involved in sport psychology and all kinds of training in various domains. He is also engaged in delivering development & motivational classes, training and coaching in sports and education for youths in Singapore. He is also the Co-Founder and Head Coach at the Small Arms Shooting Experience in recreational shooting.

 

Wendy.jpeg
Wendy Margaretta

BPsych (Indonesia), Certified Mental Toughness Coach and Facilitator (USA)

Sport & Performance Psychology Consultant

www.fb.com/sportpsychindonesia

Wendy has worked as a Human Resources Manager for the House of David, a leading Indonesian company in the hairstyle, bridal, and beauty services. Since 2017, Wendy started to grow her interest in performance nutrition and fitness. Being tired of not achieving the best version of herself again and again, she started her personal journey of discovering the powerful relationship between diet, health, and disease. Committing herself to achieving personal excellence, Wendy successfully lost 20 kilograms within a few, short months. From then on, she kept achieving new levels of success, as she continued to maintain her healthy lifestyle, complemented by participating in both physical fitness exercises and mental conditioning exercises.

 

Due to her success in losing and keep off her weight, many people started to seek her out in receiving personalized guidance. Since 2016, Wendy has effectively impacted more than 100 people across different genders and age-groups through her popular “One-on-One Weight Loss Coaching Program” – e.g., pre-marriage couples, individuals seeking a healthier lifestyle. Some of her past clients include a teacher who had successfully lost 4 kilograms within 1 month, and a salaryman who lost 12 kilograms only within two months. Recently, she had coached Miss Grand International: East Java Chapter Finalists to prepare them for a national beauty pageant competition (August 2019).

 

Wendy has worked and/or are currently working with the following clients, just to name a few:

  • "GBL" (a One-on-One Weight Loss Coaching Program) participants

  • Hakiki Donarta

  • Miss Grand International

  • Sinergia Consultant
     

Our U.S. Certified Mental Toughness Coaches

The following is our list of fully qualified and experienced mental toughness coaches who utilize SportPsych Consulting's Mental Toughness Skills Periodization Model for long-term effectiveness:

  • Carlin Lee

  • Derrick Foo

  • James Yeo

  • Jasmine Chan

  • Jason Poh

  • Julie Teo

  • Olivia Chey

  • Ong Pei Shi

  • Sabariah Dawood

  • Sebastian Pio Pereira

  • Wylie Wee

  • Yap Seok Kim

Chris is currently a Mental Skills Trainer cum Sport & Performance Psychology Consultant with SportPsych Consulting, and had worked as a Mental Skills Trainer with the Sport Psychology Unit of the Singapore Sports Council from 2006 to 2009.  He has worked with elite athletes from the National Sporting Associations (NSAs), Schools and Junior Colleges to gain top honours in their respective competitive fields since 2000.

 

Chris was the team mental skills trainer and travelling Sport Psychology Consultant to the National Softball Women’s Team (2006 -2011), the National Field Hockey Men’s and Women’s Teams, the National Senior & Junior Karate Teams and National Judo Team. He helped mentally prepare numerous athletes for the 2005, 2007 and 2011 SEA Games, World & Commonwealth Karate-Do Championships, World & Commonwealth Judo Championships, Asian Softball Championships, Singapore International Hockey Invitational, Asia Cup Hockey Championships, the 2009 Junior World Cup Hockey Tournament, 2011 Asia Boys’ Hockey U-18 & 2011 U-21 Men’s Hockey Junior Asia Cup, the National Women’s Senior / U-21 Canoe Polo Team for the 2010, 2012 and 2014 for World Canoe Polo Championships.

 

At the Collegiate level, Chris has coached Hwa Chong Institution’s Judo Team in mental skills to achieve sporting excellence in 2006, where they swept all three Boys’ Division titles to be the National Schools undisputed Judo Team Champions. Chris also provides mental skills training for secondary school student-athletes competing in the Field Hockey and Wushu disciplines whenever there was a need and request in the Singapore National Inter-Schools’ Competition held annually since 2007.

 

Chris in May 2012, voluntarily provided his mental skills support for Raffles Institution Boys’ ‘A’ Division Field Hockey Team to win the Schools’ A Division Hockey Championship for the second consecutive time as defending champions.   

Prior to his retirement from the SAF in 2005, his last appointment was that of an Officer Commanding, Naval Weapon Systems Training Centre and was appointed the Navy’s Formation Sports Mental Coach in 2004/2005. MWO Chris Lee upon his retirement, received the Navy Colours Award for his coaching excellence, leadership and sporting achievements in providing mental skills training for the Navy Sport Teams, enabling them to attain top sporting honours in SAFSA’s Annual Inter-Formation competitions.   

 

Since 2013, Chris has been providing his services and support in the Professional Golf Circuit. As a certified Golf Psychology Coach by the PGA National Training Academy(European Centre of Excellence), which is an approved education programme of the PGAs of Europe. Chris is currently working with a Professional Golfer in his Mental Game and accompanies him on his tournaments whenever possible.

 

Chris, an active sportsman, is also a martial arts enthusiast trained in Judo, Aikido and currently holds a 3rd Degree (Sandan) Black Belt in Karate-Do. He represented Singapore as a team member of the National Karate Team at the 1993 SEA Games, and competed in the 13th KOI World Cup Karate Championships held in Manila, Philippines in 2004. He is currently, preparing the Men’s & Women’s Softball Teams and also supporting the mental preparation of the Judo Team for the 2015 28th SEA GAMES in Singapore. 

 

Listi.jpeg
Listiyani Siegit 

BPsych (Indonesia), BA in Lang. & Lit. (Indonesia),

MSc in Performance Psychology (UK), Certified Mental Toughness Coach & Facilitator (USA)

Sport & Performance Psychology Consultant

www.fb.com/sportpsychindonesia

Listi graduated with a Bachelor of Psychology, majoring in Clinical Psychology from the University of Surabaya, Indonesia.  She continued her further studies at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, and graduated with Merit for the Master of Science in Performance Psychology. As a practitioner who walks her own talk, she even applied peak performance psychological techniques and strategies in her own sporting endeavours (badminton) to help her win a gold medal at the Nusantara Cup 2016, UK!

 

Listi has been actively delivering performance psychology services to clients and teams from various organizations, just to name a few:

  • 2014: Listi was an Trainer Assistant in the Diabetic House for elderly people, and conducted psycho-education workshops in promoting holistic health to high school students.  

  • 2016: Sport Psychologist at the Sports Clinic in Dr. Soetomo State Hospital Surabaya (Indonesia), in-charge of conducting workshops for PE Teachers, teaching injured athletes the psychology of recovery, and providing psychological consultations.

  • 2017: Team Sport Psychologist to fencers at the Historical European Martial Arts Coalition Scotland (HEMACS), UK.

  • 2018: National Sport Psychologist team member to the Indonesian Contingent at the Asian Para Games 2018.

  • 2019: She coached Miss Grand International: East Java Chapter Finalists, preparing them mentally for a national beauty pageant competition (August 2019).